António José, a forgotten victim of the Spanish civil war

Spain's civil war began exactly 87 years ago. António José, the most promising Spanish composer of his time, was one of the first victims.

Jul 17, 2023 - 15:42

Maurice Ravel predicted that António José would be "the Spanish composer of the 20th century". But he didn't have time to make his talent known: he was assassinated in the first months of the civil war in Spain, and his music lay forgotten until the 1980s.

Antonio José Martínez Palacios (12 December 1902 – 11 October 1936), professionally known as Antonio José, was a Spanish composer known for his promising talent and tragically short life. He was born on December 12, 1902, in Burgos, Spain, and showed remarkable musical abilities from an early age.

He began his musical studies at the Burgos Music School and later moved to Madrid to further his education. In Madrid, he studied composition, piano, and violin at the Royal Conservatory of Music. Despite his young age, he quickly gained recognition as a gifted composer, and his works started to receive praise.

António José's music was influenced by the Spanish Nationalist style, which sought to incorporate traditional Spanish folk elements into classical compositions. His compositions demonstrated a deep understanding of Spanish musical heritage while also showcasing his own unique voice as a composer.

"Sinfonia Castellana" (Castilian Symphony) is one of his most notable works, and it is scored for a large orchestra. The piece showcases his talent for orchestration and his ability to evoke the landscapes and folkloric elements of the Castile region in Spain. It is a significant example of his engagement with Spanish Nationalism and the use of traditional Spanish folk music in his compositions.

The symphony comprises several movements that reflect the colors and rhythms of Spanish culture. It remains highly regarded among Spanish orchestral repertoire and is admired for its captivating melodies and vibrant orchestration.

The "Suite Ingénua" is another significant work by António José, demonstrating his skill in composing for piano and strings. It was written for solo piano and string orchestra. The suite is characterized by its expressive melodies, rich harmonies, and use of Spanish folk elements, which was a hallmark of António José's style.

Other of his most renowned works is the "Sonata for Guitar," which is considered a significant contribution to the guitar repertoire. The piece is still performed and admired by guitarists worldwide.

Other works by António José are "Sonatina for Cello and Piano (Sonatina para violonchelo y piano)", a beautiful chamber music work that showcases António José's gift for writing intimate and lyrical melodies, or "Three Pieces for Violin and Piano (Tres piezas para violín y piano)", a set of short pieces that exhibits his ability to create evocative music for violin and piano, as well as "Canción Vasca (Basque Song)", a vocal piece displaying his interest in incorporating traditional folk elements into his compositions.

By the time of his death, António José was composing "Concierto del Sur", a concerto for guitar and orchestra, which was not yet fully completed. Another famous Spanish composer, Joaquín Rodrigo, later finished the work and dedicated it to António José.

Unfortunately, due to his untimely death during the Spanish Civil War, António José's output is limited, but the compositions he left behind have continued to be appreciated and performed by musicians and audiences alike.

However, tragedy struck when António José's life was cut short at the age of 34. In 1936, during the Spanish Civil War, he was caught in the crossfire between nationalist and republican forces in the town of Talavera de la Reina. He was mistakenly identified as a spy and summarily executed by the falangists.

His untimely death robbed the world of a promising composer whose potential was just beginning to unfold. Until now, there are no specific records or reports indicating that the remains of António José have been identified. 

António José's music remained in the dark for almost 50 years, during the entire reign of Franco. It was only in the 80s of the 20th century that it was rediscovered and disseminated.

Despite his short life, António José's music continues to be appreciated and remembered for its rich melodies, harmonies, and evocation of Spanish culture. His untimely death has added an aura of romantic tragedy to his legacy, and he remains an important figure in Spanish music history.

Janet Bluesky Member of EA Coordination Team